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The Situation of Spring Revolution in Ethnic Areas | Quarterly Report

The Situation of Spring Revolution in Ethnic Areas

Quarterly Report (February 2023 – April 2023)
The Federal Journal-Myanmar collects and publishes monthly and quarterly about public activities, movements, and coordination in resisting the military junta in Myanmar. By this time, the report focused on the political dynamic and conflict development within the past three months by examining about casualties in both sides (military junta and resisting groups) due to conflict incidents, destruction of civilian structures due to the Junta’s operation, displacement in Ethnic areas from February 2023 to April 2023.

– Part (1)
The Military and security situation in Ethnic Areas
In the past three months from February 2023 to April 2023, the total of 1530 small and large scales armed clashes have been broken out between the SAC’s troops and resistant forces; about 1200 times in Karen state, about 40 times in Kachin and Shan state each, at least 160 times in Karenni state, at least 70 times in Chin state, at least 20 times in Mon state respectively.
In that period, more than 2090 troops of SAC were killed in clashes by the resistant group in ethnic areas. The highest and second highest number of killing the junta troops were seen in Karen and Karenni state with about 1200 and 377 respectively. Additionally, the killing of Junta’s troops was also observed in other states; at least 40 in Kachin, about 310 in Chin state, at least 60 in Shan state, about 40 in Mon state respectively. From the side of resistant groups, the total of 90 freedom fighters died in clashes in the last three months, 35 of them were in Karen state as the highest numbers of casualty.
(B) Areas of Fighting
(1) Kachin state and its border areas
In the reporting period from February to April 2023, fighting was happened between KIA and SAC’s troops in Kachin state and its bordering areas. Clashes between Myanmar military (SAC) and joint forces of KIA and PDF were occurred more than 36 times. The fighting areas in Kachin state between SAC and joint force of KIA and PDF were in Shwegu tsp (Bhamaw District), Hpatma village in Putao township and Kansi areas in Phakant township. Moreover, by the leadership of KIA, forces of PDF and KIA conducted operations against SAC in the bordering areas between Kachin and Sagaing in Kata, Inn Taw, Kawlin, Htikhyaik townships and Kachin and Northern Shan areas in Kutkhai, Muse, Pyin Oo Lwin, Naung Cho townships.
(2) Kayah (Karenni) state and its border areas
In the reporting period from February to April 2023, 159 clashes between the junta forces and Karenni Army – KA, Karenni National Defense Forces- KNDF, other joint force of resistance group was happened in Karenni state and its bordering areas.
The resistant forces of KA, KNDF and PDF conducted military operation against the junta not just in Karenni state but its bordering areas with Shan, bordering areas between Shan and Karen state such as in Phekhon township, Pinlaung towship of southern part of Shan area together with Mobye-PDF, DMO-PDF, Pekhon-PDF and PaO National Defense Force – PNDF.
(3) Chin state and its border areas
In the reporting period from February to April 2023, more than 70 times of clashes between the Chin National Army – CNA and the junta troops, between the junta’s troops and joint forces of CNA and CDF was occurred in Chin state and its border areas.
The Chin National Army – CNA is the key armed actor in Chin state and have been coordinating as necessary with other newly emerged Township or tribal based armed actors that are members of CJDC.
Chinland defense forces – CDFs have been conducting military operation not just in Chin state but its border areas such as Yaw areas in Magway, Kalay-Kabaw areas of northern Sagaing region.
(4) Karen state and its border areas
In the reporting period from February to April 2023, at least 1206 clashes had been taken place in Karen state. The clashes were between KNLA and SAC’s troop, as well as between the joint forces of Karen National Liberation Army – KNLA, PDF and the SAC.
Most clashes were happened in Kaw Thoo Lei administration areas which is the control areas of KNLA. In the border areas of Karen and Mon state in Tathon, Bilin, Khyaikhto, joint military operation against SAC has been conducting by Tathon PDF, PaO PDF- (PPDF-KD), People Defense Force – PDF, Karen Revolution Front – KRF by the military command and leadership of KNLA.
(5) Mon state and its border areas
In the reporting period from February to April 2023, at least 23 clashes were occurred between Mon state-based PDF and the troops of military junta as well as a joint military operation of KNLA and Mon-state based PDF and the military junta in the border areas of Mon and Karen state. The conflict incidents areas are Ye, Paung and the border areas of Mon and Karen state in Tathon, Billin and Khyaik Tho townships.
Note, the number of clashes in the border area are counted in the respective state.

– Part (II)
The effects of Conflict incidents over civilians
(A) Civilian Casualties and Injuries
In looking at civilian casualties and injuries, due to the airstrikes of the junta, indiscriminate artillery shelling of the junta’s forces, explosion of landmine and military clashes between the junta’s troops and resistant forces, it has been observed that about 190 civilians lost their lives and more than 270 got wounded in the reporting period from February to April 2023.
In Karenni and Shan state, the highest number of civilian casualties was seen about 44 each, followed by 35 in Karen state, 29 in Chin state, 24 in Kachin state and 13 in Mon state respectively.
(B) Destruction of Civilian structure
In the reporting period, more than 2170 civilian structures were damaged due to intentionally torched and indiscriminate shelling by the SAC’s troops. The destruction of civilian structures was seen in Kachin state as the highest number with more than 1090, followed by over 590 in Karen state, above 270 in Karenni state, about 160 in Chin state, 40 in Shan state and 15 in Mon state.
– Part (III)
The activities of State and Ethnic Councils and Committees
(A) Pa-O National Federal Council (PNFC)
The Chairman of Pa-O National Federal Council (PNFC), U Khun Myint Tun said at the celebration of the 74th anniversary of Pa-O National Day on March 5, 2023 that PNFC has been supporting and arming the two military called Pa-O People Defense Force – Kham Dom – PPDF and another Pa-O PDF – Kham Kawng by militarily coordinating with Karenni National Progressive Party – KNPP and Karen National Union- KNU.
Under the military department of PNFC, Pa-O People Defense Force – Kham Dom / PPDF-KD have been conducting its military operation in three units; Operational unit (1) is in Tathon Area (Thuwanabumih) led by Khun Lu Chaw (@) Khun Sabwar , Operational unit (2) is in PhaAn Area led by Khun Way Htoo, and Operational unit (3) is in the border area of Shan and Karenni state led by Khun Sar Ki. In the military control and command, the operational unit (1) and (2) are under the leadership of KNLA and operational unite (3) at the border areas of Shan and Karenni state is under the control and command of Karenni Army – KA. They have a military coordination with the NUG’s ministry of defense.
Pa-O People Defense Force – PPDF-Kham Kawng was formed on 15 April, 2022 at Larbway Camp and has been conducting military operation against SAC along with ethnic armed group alliances.
The General Secretary of PNFC (Khun Vaar) spoke to the Federal Journal Myanmar that PNFC has been implementing the federal education which has been doing through online by the Education committee.
(B) Ta”ang Political Consultative Council (TPCC)
TPCC conducted Ta”ang state constitution seminar” for the third draft from March 11 to 12, attended by 150 people including Ta”ang political leaders, civil society organizations and township representatives. The seminar discussed and decided about the third draft state constitution, federal principles, stand and perspective on the election related matters and political dynamic and conflict solution in the post-revolution after the junta is eliminated. The seminar reformed constitution committee with 15 members who are responsible to review, amend, advocate, educate and mobilize people about the third draft constitution. TPCC publicly released their statement that criticize the planning election of SAC and re-registration for the political party because these are strategies to prolong the power of the junta forever.
(C) Mon State Federal Council (MSFC)
A council member of MSFC told the Federal journal that Mon State Federal Council (MSFC) plan to be able to form Mon state-level government departments in 2023. MSFC has three main committees known as executive, legislative and judicial. 10 departments has been formed under executive committee. In the present, MSFC has been working on the emergency activities and humanitarian works for IDPs. MSFC publicly announced on the 76th anniversary of Mon National Day on February 05, 2023 that the fake election and political talk cannot bring a real self-determination and urged other organizations to participate in the revolution.
The Mon State Federal Council (MSFC) was formed at the first conference of Mon state Interim Consultative Council to meet actual representation for the Mon people and to stand and form a strong state federal unit by 11 groups.
(D) Karenni State Consultative Council (KSCC)
The executive committee of Karenni State Consultative Council – KSCC was formed according to the article 8 (b) which has 7 members. The chairman is Aung San Myint, Vice chairman is Evelyn, General secretary is Sophia Day Mya, AGS is Khu Po Ye and members are Muangela, Micheal Bocheal and Khul Patric.
At the 2nd anniversary of the formation, KSCC updated its report to Karenni people including its political principles, humanitarian works, defense forces, the role of police, departments, technical issues and future plans.
References –
1) Independent news media
2) National Unity Government (NUG)
3) Interim State Consultative Councils or Committee
4) Ethnic human rights groups
5) Federal Journal Myanmar inquiry, Collections

Presented by the Federal Journal Myanmar