The situation of Spring Revolution in Ethnic Areas
Quarterly Report (August 2023 – October 2023)
The Federal Journal-Myanmar collects and publishes monthly and quarterly reports relating to public activities, movements and coordination in resisting the military junta in Myanmar. By this time, the report focused on the political dynamic and conflict development within the past three months by examining about casualties in both sides (military junta and resisting groups) due to conflict incidents, destruction of civilian structures due to the Junta’s operation, displacement in Ethnic areas from August 2023 to October 2023.
The military and security situation in ethnic areas
During the past three months, from August 2023 to October 2023, a total of 858 small and large-scale armed clashes have broken out between the SAC’s troops and resistant forces; Karen and Shan State are highest in number, 460 and 205 times respectively.
All the while, more than 1180 troops of SAC were killed in clashes by the resistant groups in ethnic areas. The highest and second highest number of killed junta troops were in Karen and Shan states with 447 and 320 respectively.A total of 145 soldiers from the revolutionary forces have fallen during the reporting period.
(a) Kachin State
During the reporting period, 55 armed clashes between SAC and Kachin joint Resistance Forces, 127 deaths of SAC troops and 11 deaths of Revolutionary troops were documented.
The Kachin Joint Defense Forces perform their armed operations according to the military command and conduct of Kachin Independence Army – KIA in Shweku, Pu-tao, Phankant Townships in Bhanmaw District, Kachin-Sagaing border areas such as Katha, Indaw, Kawlin and Tigyaing townships, and the Northern parts of shan state such as Kutkhaing၊ Muse၊ Pyin-Oo-Lwin၊ Naungcho Townships.
(b) Chin State
In the reporting period, 26 clashes between the SAC and the Chin National Army – CNA, and joint forces of CNA and Chinland (Chin) Defense Forces occurred in Chin state and its border areas. 79 deaths of SAC troops and 27 fallen revolutionary troops were documented in this period.
The Chin National Army – CNA is the key armed actor in Chin state and has been coordinating with other newly emerged Township or tribal based defense forces as necessary. Chinland joint defense forces have been conducting military operations significantly in Chin state and in its border regions such as Kankaw areas in Magway, Kalay-Kabaw areas of northern Sagaing region.
(c) Shan State
In the reporting period, a total of 205 clashes, 320 deaths of the SAC troops and death of one soldier from the resistant groups were documented.
In Shan state, the clashes between the SAC and the Kokang – MNDAA, Ta’ang – TNLA and People Defense forces – PDFs occur. And the clashes between the two ethnic armed organizations RCSS/SSA and SSPP/SSA happened as well.
(d) Karenni (Kayah) State
In the reporting period,103 clashes between the junta force and Karenni joint Resistance Forces happened in Karenni state and its bordering areas. There were 201 deaths from the junta troops and 20 soldiers from revolutionary troops fallen within this period.
In the Karenni State, the armed conflicts occur between the SAC and the joint forces of Karenni Army – KA, the Karenni Nationalities Defense Forces – KNDF and Karenni State based Local Defense Forces. Moreover, the Karenni Joint Defense Forces conduct their operations in its bordering areas such as Phenkhon and Pinlaung townships in the southern parts of Shan state, along with the Local Defense Forces from Shan state.
(e) Karen (Kayin) State
In the reporting period from, 463 clashes took place in the Kawthoolei Administrative Area. The clashes were mostly between the SAC troops and KNLA and its joint defense forces from Kawthoolei Administrative Area. During the clashes, 447 deaths of the junta troops and the falling of 86 revolutionary troops, the highest numbers of deaths from both sides in this period, were documented.
Local defense forces such as Tathon PDF, Pa-O PDF- (PDF-KD), People Defense Force – PDF, Karen Revolution Front – KRF and the Karen National Liberation Army -KNLA jointly conduct the military operations with the military command and leadership of KNLA in the Kawthoolei administration area, the control area of KNLA including townships from Mon state such as Tathon, Bilin, Khyaikhto.
(f) Mon State
In the reporting period from August 2023 to October 2023, a total of 6 clashes and 13 deaths of SAC troops and its fellow members were documented.
As townships in Mon state such as Tathon, Bilin, Khyaikhto are parts of the Kawthoolei Administrative Area, the control areas of KNU/KNLA, local defense forces from these townships perform their armed operations under the leadership and command of KNLA.
The Consequences of Conflict incidents over Civilians
(a) Destruction of Civilian Structure and Civilian fatality
In looking at civilian casualties, due to the airstrikes of the junta, indiscriminate artillery shelling of the junta’s forces, explosion of landmine and military clashes between the junta’s troops and resistant forces, it has been observed that A total number of 151 civilians lost their lives, 50 civilians were killed in Karen as the highest number followed by 42 in Kachin State, and 30 in Shan, 18 in Mon, 6 in Karenni and 5 in Chin respectively.
Due to indiscriminate artillery shelling and the torching of the junta’s forces, more than 973 destruction of civilian structures was recorded, 412 in Kachin, 251 Karenni, 198 in Karen, 96 in Shan and 16 in Chin in this reporting period.
The activities of State and Ethnic Councils and Committees
(a) Pa-O National Federal Council
As a political improvement within this reporting period, the Pa-O National Federal Council is contribute an engagement in the drafting of the Pa’O State Constitution in an effort to promote the emergence of Pa’O Nationals State and the determination of Pa’O Nationals Region but actively participating in the spring revolution on the ground. PNFC will be carrying out the processes of the determination of Pa’O nationals State and the state constitution drafting along with the public consultation.
Khun Wai Htoo, the secretary of PNFC said to Federal Journal Myanmar that “ the PNFC is actively preparing on the emergence of Pa’O Nationals State with a focus on becoming one of the member states in the establishment of the future federal democratic union under the federal principle of racial and political equality.
The Pa’O State will be mainly composed of the southern areas of Shan State and areas where the Pa’O Nationals are residing as in the Thahton area, Mon State. Other areas and places where the Pa’O nationals resided will be regarded as the Pa’O Nationals State/Region in accordance with the insistence of Pa’O Nationals.
The political ambition of Pa’O nationals is the emergence of Pa’O Nationals State and Region with a full self-determination and national equality, stated by the PNFC on the Pa’O national martyr’s commemoration day on September 24.
(b) Ta’ang Political Consultative Council – TPCC
Ta’ang Political Consultative Council (TPCC) held a seminar on 11 March to 12 March with a total of 150 delegations from Ta’ang civil society organizations, political organizations and, Ethnic Armed Organizations. The third draft of Ta’ang State Constitution was also approved in the seminar.
The Ta’ang constitution has twelve chapters and most of the chapters were approved in the seminar but chapters that are related to the whole Ta’ang national such as national flag, national anthem and national emblem were left to be decided on at the Ta’ang national conference.
The first draft of Ta’ang constitution was approved during the 6th month annual central committee meeting of Ta’ang National Liberation Army (TNLA/PSLF) in 2015, and the second draft in 2021 by TPCC.
(c) Chinland Council
Within this quarterly period, there was no political improvement regarding the Interim Chin National Consultative Council (ICNCC) ; the resistant groups are engaging in organizing the conference of Chinland Council.
The Working Committee for Chinland Council Conference announced in their statement that the stakeholders of Chinland such ah Chin National Front (CNF), Members of Parliament from Chin, delegations from tribal/regional based resistant groups agreed on organizing the chinland council conference and forming the Working Committee for Chinaland Council Conference (WCCCC) with the aim of jurisdiction matters in chinland such as the interim chinland constitution, administration, legislation and judiciary in Chinland.
The Working Committee for Chinland Council Conference announced in their statement on 28 October that WCCC has completed the second amendment of the interim chinland constitution successfully, and is engaging on completing the single text of interim chinland constitution within this year and 60% of the process has been accomplished.
Current resistant groups from chinland such as Chin National Organization (CNO/CNDF) from Falam township and Zomi Federal Union (ZFU/PDF-Zoland) from Tedim township have not joined WCCCC yet, but Dr. Ngai Tam Aung, the chairperson of WCCCC stated in the press that WCCCC is fully engaging in persuading the left out groups in the compromising process.
(d) Karenni State Consultative Council (KSCC)
The Karenni State Consultative Council (KSCC) is trying to establish a transitional karenni constitution within this period, and formed a transitional constitution drafting committee with (15) members according to the section (1) of constitution drafting committee formation rules and procedures. Aung San Myint, the member of KSCC is the chairperson of the committee and Naw Phaw Wah is the secretary.
1. Independent Ethnic Based News Media
2. Interim Consultative Councils & Committees
3. Ethnic Human Rights Organization
4. Exclusive Interviews by Federal Journal Myanmar
Federal Journal (Myanmar)