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The situation of Spring Revolution in Ethnic Areas

The situation of Spring Revolution in Ethnic Areas
Quarterly Report (February, March, April 2024)
The Federal Journal-Myanmar gathers information and publishes situational reports monthly on public activities, movements and coordination of the ethnic peoples in resisting the military junta in Myanmar. By this time, the report focused on the political dynamic and conflict development in the past three months (from February – April 2024) by examining about casualties in both sides (military junta and resisting groups) due to conflict incidents, destruction of civilian structures due to the Junta’s operation and shelling and political coordination bodies in ethnic areas.
Part (I)
(A) Armed Clashes and casualties in both sides
In the past three months between February to April 2024, the total of 952 armed clashes occurred between the SAC’s troops and resistant forces. According to our data, Karen state was the one where the most conflict incidents happened with the total 420 times, followed by Mon state and Karenni state with 160 and 129 respectively. In those three months of armed conflicts, at least 1254 junta troops were killed and about 170 freedom fighters from resistant forces gave their lives for the success of revolution.
(1) Kachin state
In the past three months, at least 74 armed clashes happened between the junta troops and joint forces of KIA and PDFs. During those armed conflict incidents, at least 272 troops of SAC were reportedly killed and more than 23 soldiers from the revolutionary gave their lives.
A joint force of Kachin Independence Army – KIA and People Defense Force – PDF seized about (70) outposts of the military junta in Kachin state; Nan Ding outpost, Infantry battalions (119) at Tamahkan village and Hpun Hpen Bum outpost in Phakant township, Palawng Ding Sa base between Mansi and Manwing towns, Karen Bum, Ding Wa Rum outposts, and Hangkai Bum LIB (142) base between Myitkyina and Bhamo Road, Dasai outpost in Momauk township, Myanmar military junta bases such as Hkaya Bum, Bumre Bum, Point (936) mountain, Kham Kai Bum, Point (259) Airport outpost near Laiza and on road between Myitkyina and Bhamo town, Sikhan Kyi oupost, Hkaya Bum, Naura Zinghkang, Hpun Pyen Bum, Ntap Bum, Sha Dan Pa airport outpost, Malimyen Dap, Masen Bum, Daw Hpung Yang outposts in Mansi township, Myothit, Konglaw, Salaung Gone (Tower Gone), Lonja Bum, Yaw Yung Bum, Mada Bum, Sinlum Bum in Momauk township, and Light Infantry Battalion 141 in Sinbo town.
(2) Chin state
In Chin state, the 45 times of clashes between SAC soldiers and Chin resistant forces was reported in the past three months. Local sources claimed that at least 50 SAC troops were killed in those incidents and 11 fighters fell from the side of resistant forces.
The joint operation of Chin Defense Force – Kanpetlet and its alliance against SAC base at Cindwe town was renamed as Chin Brotherhood operation on March 7, 2024 and then intensify the operation with more alliances known as CDF-Kanpetlet, CDF-Matupi (Brigade -1), CDF-Mindat, Chin National Defense Force- CNDF, PDF-Zoland, Yaw Defense Force- YDF, Arakan Army – AA, other LPDFs and PDFs, and captured the town on 29 April after 54 days of joint operation.
(3) Shan state
In the past three months, the total of 79 times armed clashes was reported in Shan state in which at least 210 of SAC troops were killed and 24 members of resistant group gave their life in the revolution.
Armed conflicts incidents were happened in the southern part of Shan state between joint force of Pa-O National Liberation Army – PNLA and military junta in the past three months. Armed clashes were broken out between Joint force of resistant groups and the junta troops in the bordering areas of Shan and Karenni especially in Moe Bye, Pekon, and Pinlaung townships. SAC conducted airstrikes and artillery shells without any armed clashes in Hsihseng, Nyaungshwe, Hopong and Pinlaung townships which killed civilians and destroyed civilian structures.
(4) Kayah (Karenni) state
In Karenni state, the total of 129 armed clashes between joint force of Karenni and the military junta were reported that the death of 372 soldiers from SAC and 74 resistant fighters fell in the past three months.
Most armed clashes were occurred between Karenni Army – KA and the Myanmar military junta troops, as well as between SAC and joint force of Karenni National Defense Force – KNDF and other Karenni based resistant groups. Resistant forces of Karenni were able to capture the 65 outposts of the military junta in the border areas between Karenni and Shan, border areas of Karenni and Thailand, areas of Mese and east Thanlwin, Shataw township and some bases in Karen state.
(5) Karen state
In Karen state, the total number of 420 armed clashes broke out between the joint force of PDFs and revolutionary groups based in the territories of Kawthoolei and the military council troops in the past three months. It was reported that 127 SAC soldier were killed in those incidents and 12 freedom fighters from the side of revolutionary group fell during clashes. To be specific, the Karen National Liberation Army – KNLA and Karen National Defense Organization – KNDO including other resistant groups seized many SAC’s bases in Karen state such as Maw Tha base, Light Infantry Battalion 103, LIB 275, LIB 355, LIB 356 bases in Myawaddy and Tingyan Nyi Naung areas.
(6) Mon state
In Mon state, about 160 armed clashes were reported between SAC and Mon revolutionary forces in the past three months. However, the figure of casualty from both sided is not disclosed.
Many human rights violations were reported in Mon state in the reporting period; 42 civilians were arrested by SAC, the number of IDPs in Kyaikmaraw was 83,500, followed by Bilin township with 12,953 and 1062 in Tathon were reported in the past three months.
(7) Rakhine state
In Rakhine state, the fighting between SAC and Arakan Army – AA has been happening in most part of Rakhine state since AA started its military operation in Rakhine. In the past three months, more than 33 large scale armed clashes were reported. In those armed clashes, at least 223 members of SAC were killed and 26 freedom fighters fell from AA side.
After the seizure of Paletwa township of Chin state, as AA is trying to extend its control in Rakhine state and so armed clashes are happening in many townships. In the past three months, AA claimed that it has controlled more than half of the total 17 townships in the state, captured SAC’s bases known as Maungdaw, Kyain Kyaung tactical command base, LIB 564 central base, LIB 552 base in An, Buthidaung and Maungdaw township. AA seized SAC’s military bases known as LIB 536, LIB 537, and LIB 538 in Yathedaung township and LIB 550, other SAC outposts in Yanbye and Ponagyun townships.
(B) The Impact of Conflict incidents on Civilians
In the past three months from February to April in 2024, at least 280 civilians were killed due to the airstrikes and indiscriminate artillery shelling of SAC, landmine in conflict areas and shot dead in conflict incidents in ethnic areas. At least 1100 houses were reported to be destroyed by the shelling into civilian resident areas by SAC.
Civilian casualties were reported in Rakhine as the highest in the reporting period with 66 people, followed by Shan state as the second highest with 52, Karenni state with 44, Karen state with 43, Chin state with 33, Mon state with 26 and Kachin with 16 respectively.
When looking at the civilian structure destruction in the reporting period, Chin state stands as the highest with 301 houses, followed by Karen with 299, Shan with 225, Karenni with 153, Mon with 91, Kachin with 20 and Rakhine with 10 respectively.
Part (II)
The Activities of State/ Ethnic Councils and Committees
(1) Pa-O National Federal Council
In the past three months, as political development, Pa-O National Federal Council – PNFC held the 75th Anniversary of Pa-O National Day on March 24, 2024 in which many Ethnic Armed Organizations, Resistant groups, NUG and its Ministries sent felicitation letters. PNFC encouraged Pa-O youths to join PNFC to avoid the conscription law of the military council. On the diamond anniversary of Pa-O Nationa Day, Khun Wai Htoo, the Secretary (II) of PNFC publicly urged the Pa-O National Organization/ Army – PNO/PNA which is Pa-O militia closely working with SAC, to return to the right path for federal democracy as there is no way to get fighting along with the Junta.
The first plenary meeting of PNFC was held on February 7 – 10, 2024 at liberated area. The meeting was attended by representatives from five sectors, Pa-O people, special guests and observers. The meeting focused on the current politics, military, public affairs, federalism and issues related to Pa-O, and were able to set up for the future workplans. In the meeting, the constitution of PNFC was temporarily approved and recommendation points on Federal Democracy Charter – FDC was also confirmed.
According to the released statement, the session also discussed such as the IDPs/ women and children’s issues, liberating Pa-O people who are being manipulated and used as human – shield by the military junta and its alliance, for the unity of Kham Dom and Kham Kaung and so on. A statement was also released saying that military coordination committee has been formed between Pa-O Defense Force – Kham Dom (PDF-KD)’s military areas (1) and (2) and Pa-O National Defense Force – Kham Kaung (PNDF-KK)’s military area (3) for military coordination.
(2) Ta’ang Political Consultative Committee – TPCC
In the last three months, Ta’ang Political Consultative Committee – TPCC held an annual meeting which focused on evaluating on one-year activities of TPCC and the formation of the committee and discussed on current conflict and political development and for the future work plan.
According to the released statement, after one-day long discussion, instead of implementing Interim Public Administration of TPCC’s agenda, due to conflict and political development in the areas after 1027 operation, the draft for Ta’ang Land Government Arrangement for Revolution Period will be implemented in order to set up civilian administrative body in the townships where PSLF/TNLA have seized. The meeting agreed the processes and activities to implement the work plan as soon as possible.
(3) Mon State Federal Council
According to the statement, Mon State Federal Council – MSFC and New Mon State Party – Anti-Dictatorship (MNSP-AD) will form Joint Coordination Group to discuss and work together effectively on politic affairs, military matters, humanitarian issues and other activities.
Moreover, the statement also read that some political and military leaders from Mon State Defense Force – MSDF decided to join and take responsibility in Mon State Federal Council – MSFC after discussing between Mon State Revolution Force and Mon State Defense Force, and to support MSDF to sustain it activities by MSFC. As the statement states that MSRF and MSDF will keep fighting as an alliance to eliminate any forms of dictatorships until being able to form a sovereign Mon state.
(4) Chinland Council
The 2nd meeting of the Chinland Council during its first term was held at Chinlung town. The meeting approved the nominated list of Chinland Government (Chief minister and ministers), Attorney general, Auditor general, Chief Justice and judges of the Chinland that were submitted by nomination committee according to the Chinland Constitution.
The three branches including Chinland parliament were successfully formed. The released statement saying that Chin nation building, strengthening Chin military, Chin public participation and coordination will be implemented in accordance with the newly made Chinland Constitution.
The statement also mention that the Chin public affairs will be managed based on the three branches in the revolutionary period to eliminate all form of dictatorship, to build federal democracy which guarantees self-determination, and to work political and military effectively the CC will work with other ethnic organizations and revolutionary groups, people defense forces, governments, political parties, Civil society organizations, and individuals.
As the Chinland Constitution states, the Chinland government has been formed with 16 ministers. At the same time, the Chinland Parliament has also been formed.
The Chinland government released a statement announcing their 100-days plans which will focus on consolidating tribal and township based local governance bodies to build a stable and effective administrative mechanism, strengthening security and the rule of law matters across the Chinland. Moreover, it will also focus on cooperating with NUG and other federal units or local governance, and build networks and work with international communities including UN, neighboring governments. Senthang people conference was held and Senthang Central Council/Senthang Revolution Force was formed under the leadership of the Chinland Council.
(5) Karenni State Consultative Council
Karenni State Consultative Council – KSCC was formed by the comprise of (A) Ethnic armed organization within Karenni, (B) Political party, (C) Karenni state MP, (D) Youths, CSO, Strike committees, (E) Women in April 2021. KSCC held its 13rd Meeting and released a statement on 21 April 2024 saying that its members extended to 13 representatives.
KSCC is a political platform for political actors in Karenni state and lead political discussion, setting up related policy for Administration, Judiciary and legislative bodies, approving policy submitted by other actors, directing policy, approving and appointing staffs. KSCC approved the necessary formation of administrative, legislative and judiciary bodies and work closely together with them, and KSCC has to approve a policy related for each body.
Karenni state judiciary branch was formed by chief justice and judges to work for judiciary matters in Karenni state as the interim arrangement Chapter (8), article (64) (c) and interim judiciary law, article (7) (d) states. In the present, state supreme court, district and township court have been established and have been investigating and solving cases. KSCC is also an active member of NUCC and has been taking part in several committees.
An Overview
The study about conflict dynamic and political development in ethnic areas in the past three months, many success in military sector have been learned which impacts the whole conflict dynamic of the spring revolution is learned from February to April 2024 by noticing KIA’s offensive operation and have seized over (70) outposts of the military junta, one of the three brotherhood alliance members, Arakan Army’s successful operation against the SAC’s bases in Rakhine and controlling most part Rakhine state, military actors in Karenni state come to seize some townships and the armed wing of KNU and PDFs have captured many bases of the junta in Karen state. In the current situation, ethnic armed organizations – EAOs are attacking the military junta’s bases in their respective state and fighting to have a full control in their respective territory, they are doing public services for the people of their respective areas at the same time.
In the next three months, it is possible that EAOs will keep their offensive operation against the military junta by seizing strategic bases of SAC and controlling the towns in many parts of the ethnic areas. As the EAOs control broader territories, political matters, administrative and public services delivery can become more effective. Thus, the current conflict trend and political development and broadening the control areas by EAOs is a huge political step towards in building a new federal democratic union in Myanmar.
References –
1. Independent media agencies,
2. Official social media pages and website of Interim state consultative councils,
3. Official statements of Ethnic human rights Organization and Civil society organization,
4. Ethnic news and media,
5. Exclusive interviews by the federal journal Myanmar team.